تخلط بيضة بطحين حتى تصبح كالعجين , وتوضع على العنق وتربط بقماش , من الليل حتى الصباح , ثم ترفع ويغسل مكانها بالماء الفاتر , فان ذلك يرفع الالتهاب والحرارة عن الحلق , تكرر العمليى حتى الشفاء ان شاء الله تعالى
People who have certain kinds of allergies are more likely to have asthma. Do you have allergies that affect your nose and eyes, causing stuff like a runny nose or red, itchy eyes? If so, you're more likely to have asthma, too. Whatever causes the allergic reaction, such as pollen or dust, can also trigger asthma symptoms.
But not everyone who has allergies gets asthma, and not all asthma happens because of allergies. Huh? Allergies and asthma can be a little confusing, so let's find out more.
About 7 million kids in the United States have been diagnosed with asthma. Of these, about three out of four have asthma symptoms that are triggered by an allergy to something (called an allergen). In these people, the symptoms of asthma like wheezing, coughing, or trouble breathing are often brought on by being around allergens.
Allergies have a lot to do with your immune (say: ih-myoon) system. Most of the time your immune system fights germs and bacteria to help you stay healthy. But in a kid with allergies, the immune system treats allergens (such as pollen) as if they're invading the body, like a bad germ.
When the immune system reacts to an invading allergen, the body releases substances that cause allergy symptoms, such as a runny nose or red, itchy eyes. Some kids can also get asthma symptoms, like coughing, wheezing, or a tight feeling in the chest.
If you have asthma, it is a good idea to find out whether allergies may be causing your asthma symptoms. To figure out what they're allergic to, sometimes kids will visit a special doctor called an allergist (say: ah-lur-jist).
If the allergist finds out that you are allergic to certain things, the best way to prevent allergic reactions (and to help stop asthma symptoms from bugging you) is to avoid being around those allergens. The doctor also may prescribe medicine for your allergies if you can't completely avoid what's causing them.
Have you ever eaten gluten? No, not glue — gluten! If you've ever eaten a piece of bread, a slice of pizza, or a bowl of cereal, chances are you have.
Gluten (say: gloo-tin) is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley — grains that are in many everyday foods. Most of us eat food with gluten with no trouble. But for some people, eating gluten can cause a reaction in their bodies. Someone who has this problem has celiac (say: see-lee-ak) disease.
After you eat food, it goes to your stomach, which is part of a group of organs that make up your digestive system. An important part of the digestive system is the small intestine, which is lined with villi (say: vil-eye).
Villi are usually described as microscopic, finger-like projections. Weird, huh? Fingers in your intestines! But don't forget that they're microscopic, meaning they are extremely small — so small you can't see them without a microscope. The villi are important because they absorb nutrients into the body.
For someone with celiac disease, eating gluten — in a piece of bread, for instance — causes an immune system reaction. Your immune system ordinarily keeps you from getting sick, but in someone with celiac disease, the body starts damaging and destroying the villi. Without villi, the body can't absorb vitamins and nutrients from food. Without enough nutrients, a kid's body has a tough time staying healthy and growing properly. Even if the person eats a lot, he or she might still lose weight and might develop anemia (say: uh-nee-me-uh) from not absorbing enough iron.
Why Do Kids Get Celiac Disease?
No one is sure why celiac disease happens, but it appears to run in families. You have a 5% to 10% chance of getting celiac disease if someone in your family has it. It's common in people from the northern European countries and the United States. How common? About 1 in every 133 people in the United States has celiac disease.
Obviously, many people who have celiac disease do not know it. If all these people were diagnosed, celiac disease would be more common than type 1 diabetes. Fortunately, awareness is growing about the problem, and there are better ways of testing people for it.
Signs and Symptoms
Some common symptoms of celiac disease are diarrhea, decreased appetite, stomachache and bloating, poor growth, and weight loss. Many kids are diagnosed with it when they're between 6 months and 2 years old. It makes sense because, at this time kids are getting their first taste of gluten in foods.
For some people, the problems occur gradually and the symptoms may be terrible one week and not as bad the next. Because of this, some people aren't diagnosed with celiac disease until they're older. The problem is chronic, which means that although symptoms may come and go, people who have celiac disease will always have it.
Someone with celiac disease may feel tired and could be irritable. Some also have skin rashes and mouth sores. The problem is sometimes mistaken for other digestive problems called inflammatory bowel disease or lactose intolerance. And in some cases, a kid won't have any symptoms and then will all of a sudden start having problems during a time of stress, such as after an injury.
How Do People Know If They Have It?
Someone who has a lot of stomachaches, diarrhea, weight loss, or any of the other symptoms mentioned above should talk to a doctor. It may or may not be celiac disease, but a doctor can help sort this out and will usually order a screening blood test.
If the screening tests show a person might have celiac disease, the next stop is usually a gastroenterologist, a doctor who specializes in digestive problems. This specialist may decide to take a sample of the small intestine to look at under the microscope. This small sample is called a biopsy. If a biopsy is done, the doctor will give some special medicine to help the person stay comfortable during the procedure.
How Is It Treated?
Celiac disease is treated by not eating gluten. This can be difficult because gluten is in many foods, but a dietitian can help adjust someone's diet to cut out gluten. It is important not to start a gluten-free diet unless you are truly diagnosed with celiac disease.
Following a gluten-free diet allows the small intestine to heal. But that doesn't mean the person can start eating gluten again. For someone with celiac disease, gluten will always irritate the intestines and, if this happens, the diarrhea, stomachaches, and other problems will return.
If you're diagnosed with celiac disease, it can be a challenge to learn which foods contain gluten. You may not be able to remember them all, but you can keep a list with you and ask about menu items at restaurants before digging in. Before you know it, you'll be a pro at knowing which foods are safe and which are not.
Here's a quick quiz: Which of these foods contain gluten?
If you said all three, you're right! Pizza was the easiest choice because you know the crust is bread. But did you know that battered foods like fried chicken and even some French fries contain gluten? Pasta also contains gluten because it is made from wheat. Luckily, you can make or buy gluten-free pizza crust, make fried chicken with a gluten-free batter, and find gluten-free pasta. In fact, nearly all of the foods we eat can be made gluten free.
In addition to foods that contain gluten, you'll need to watch out for foods that may have been contaminated with gluten. That means a food doesn't contain gluten as an ingredient but came into contact with gluten-containing foods. This is most likely to occur at home in your own kitchen — for instance, wheat bread crumbs in the toaster, the butter, or peanut butter.
If you have celiac disease you will need your own toaster and you should also have separate spreads and condiments to avoid this cross-contamination. Some foods are contaminated during processing, so your mom or dad can help you by finding certified gluten-free foods. For instance, gluten-free oats are now available for people with celiac disease.
The best approach is to read labels, but here are a few foods to steer clear of until you can verify that they are gluten free:
packaged rice mixes
There's also a labeling act that requires the labeling of wheat-free products. But a "wheat-free" food isn't necessarily a "gluten-free" one because wheat-free products may have barley and rye (gluten-containing grains) in them.
A diagnosis of celiac disease does not mean giving up all your favorite foods. It just means adapting them to be gluten free. Many different gluten-free products, baking mixes, and recipes are available. A support group is a great resource for finding out which recipes and products are best.
A support group can help keep you up to date as well. For instance, a few years ago it was recommended that distilled vinegar be completely avoided on a gluten-free diet. Now we know that the gluten molecules do not appear in the distillate. Huh? What this means is that distilled vinegar is now an OK ingredient. That made a big change in the allowed foods someone with celiac disease could eat.
If you're part of a support group, you hear of these kinds of changes right away. A support group is also a great place to get to know other kids who have celiac disease and to learn that you're not alone.
تنتظر بعض السيدات مناسبة خاصة بفارغ الصبر، ويتجهزن لهذه المناسبة بالثياب الجديدة وتهيئة الطلة المتوقعة لهن، إلا أن بعضهن قد يصاب بخيبة أمل إذا فاجأتها البثور قبيل وقت المناسبة بقليل.
ولمن عانت مثل هذا الأمر، أو تخشى من وقوعه نقدم كيف التخلص من البثور المفاجئة.
1. أولا يجب أن تحددي نوع البثرة التي ظهرت.
2. إذا كانت ذات رأس أسود، قومي بتغطيتها ومحيطها بقناع طيني، لأن الطين يعمل على سحب الزيوت والجلد الميت بشكل طبيعي، وهي المواد التي يتكون منها الرأس الأسود للبثرة، انتظري حتى يجف الطين، واستعملي أشرطة التخلص من الرؤوس السوداء المتوفرة في الأسواق بعد ترطيب المنطقة بعض الماء، ضعي بعض الثلج عليها للتخلص من الورم ثم ضعي الماكياج كالمعتاد.
3. إذا كانت البصرة ذات رأس أبيض، قومي بتغطيتها بقطعة قماش نظيفة مبلة بماء ساخن قدر الإمكان، اتركيها عدة دقائق، ثم اسحبي السائل الأبيض منها، ضعي أصابعك حول قطعة ورق نظيف واضغطي عليها لتنفجر أو قومي بثقبها برأس دبوس معقم، ضعي الثلج عليها مباشرة حتى لا تصبح حمراء أو منتفخة، ثم ضعي الماكياج كالمعتاد.
4. إذا تحولت البثرة إلى انتفاخ أحمر، فلا أمل لك إلا وضع الثلج والقليل من كريم إخفاء العيوب لإخفاء الإحمرار.
20 طريقه لازاله الرؤس السودا والبثور . ضعي معجون أسنان على البثرة قبل النوم، يساعد المعجون على تخفيف الانتفاخ، لا تستعمل الجل. · اغسلي وجهك مرتان في اليوم بماء مالح دافئ، للتخلص من البشرة الدهنية والحفاظ على البشرة خالية من البثور. · ضعي أوراق الفراولة على حبوب الشباب لتخفيف الانتفاخ والاحمرار. · امزجي ليمونة مع القليل من ماء الورد، ضعي المزيج على الوجه لمدة نصف ساعة. اغسلي الوجه بالماء الدافئ. يستمر البرنامج لمدة 15 يوم. · امسحي البشرة بقشرة الليمون الداخلية البيضاء قبل غسلها بالماء. · اغسلي الوجه بعصير النعناع الطازج كل ليلة للتخلص من البثور، وحب الشباب، والاكزيما والجرب والكثير من مشاكل البشرة. · تناولي الكثير من الفواكه الطازجة والخضراوات. · لمشاكل البشرة المزمنة، اهرسي حصين من الثوم وامسحي بهما الوجه. · اطحني قشرة البرتقال مع بعض الماء وضعيها على وجهك. من أفضل العلاجات المنزلية. · نظفي الوجه بقطن مبل بماء الورد. · امزجي ملعقة ليمون وملعقة قرفة مطحونة وضعيها على المنطقة المصابة. · استعملي عصير الصبار مرتان في اليوم، يساعد الصبار على شفاء الجروح والندب التي يتركها حب الشباب. · ضعي الثلج على البثور الكبيرة المنتفخة وستزول مع الصباح. · تناولي مكملات الفيتامين ب 5 والخارصين لزيادة مقاومة الجلد وحب الشباب. · امزجي عصير النعناع مع مسحوق الكركم وضعيه على الوجه لمدة 30 دقيقة، سيصفي الوجه ويضفي بريقا عليه. · امزجي بعض الخل والملح في وعاء ثم، ضعي قليلاً منه على يديك وافركي المنطقة المصابة. أو بلي منشفة صغيرة في المحلول وضعيها على وجهك لمدة 15 دقيقة. · اهرسي الخيار واصنعي منه معجون، ضعيه على وجهك واتركيه لنصف ساعة. سيجدد البشرة وينقيها. · امزجي طحين الذرة مع بياض البيض ودعيه على وجهك لمدة نصف ساعة. دلكي وجهك وسيصبح ناعماً جداً مع الانتظام بعمل هذا الماسك. · اخلطي بعض مسحوق جوزة الطيب مع الحليب وضعيه على المنطقة المصابة. وستختفي البثور كالسحر دون آثار. · امزجي 3 ملاعق من العسل مع ملعقة قرفة وضعيها على المنطقة المصابة قبل النوم، اغسليها في الصباح، وستختفي البثور بعد أسبوعان تماماً.
لاحظت أنو من أكثر المشاكل إلي يعاني منها الشباب والبنات هي الجبوب وآثارها تكرار طلبهم للوصفات عشان يتخلصوا منها لذلك حبيت أساعد إلي يعانون من هذا المشكل وان شاء الله رح تستفيدوا
يكثر حب الشباب بمنطقة الخدين والجبين وعلى الذقن
وخصوصا بالبشره الدهنيه ...
اول مرحله للعلاج ... واهمها ...
الاهتمام بنظافة البشره بشكل دائم
لهذا قمت ببحث لعله يساعد كل البنات على التخلص من هذا المشكل
: تنظيفها من بقايا المكياج ..
وانصحكم هنا بـ مزيل المكياج الورقي من جونسون او كلين اند كلير ...
يمكنك استبدال مناديل ازالة المكياج الورقيه بالرغوه الخاصه من احدى الماركتين ..
ثانيا : غسل الوجه مرتين باليوم صباحا ومساء بصابونه مناسبه ...
يمكنكم تجربة صابونةدوف او أي صابونه تلائم بشرتكم ...
لازالة اثار الحبوب
اخذي زيت جلسرين وعصري عليه شوي من الليمون واخلطيه زين ثم حطيه على بشرتك ونامي عليه واذا صحيتي غسلي وجهك وجففيه باي صابونه مناسبه لبشرتك وخلال اسبوعين باذن الله راح تبان النتيجه واستمري عليه حتى تختفي الاثار
وصفة لتنعيم البشرة وإزالة حب الشباب:
المقادير:مغلي الخس+زيت الورد
الطريقة:قومي بأخذ مغلي الخس وضعيه على الوجه الى ان يجف ثم قومي بمسح الوجه بقطنه مبللة من زيت الورد ويستمر حتى زوال الآثار
4-وصفة لمعالجة حبوب الشباب :
المقادير: عصير الخيار+ مقدار 1- ملعقة من : ( الكريمة الطازجة+ ماء ورد أو ماء زهر)+ بياض بيضة
الطريقة: قومي بخلط جميع المقادير وضعيها على البشرة لمدة
لازالة آثار الحبوب من الوجه
طحين الدرة + ابيض بيضة واحدة
: نخلط كمية قليلة من طحين الدرة مع ابيض بيضة واحدة حتى يتجانسان
ثم ينضف الوجه جيداونضع هدا القناع لمدة نصف ساعة تقريبا حتي ينشف , بعدها
نزيله بتدليك دائري من الاسفل الي الاعلى ثم نمسح الوجه بعد ذلك بقليل من ماء...
امزجي الخليط يكون خفيف وليس سميك.
ضعيه على وجهك كله واتركيه ساعة لانه مايضرالبشرة كله فوائد ثم اشطفي وجهك بالماء البارد
بعد كده مرري شريحة ليمون
لتسد المسامات خليها 10 د واغسلي بماء كل الدهون روح الحبوب تقل والخود تنور مثل المكياج
ان شاء الله تكونوا استفدتم والطرق سهله بس تحتاج مداومه منكم ومتابعه وان شاء الله تتخلصوا من الحبوب
حب الشباب من أكثر الأمور التي تعرض البشرة لمصير بائس من البقع والآثار والحفر قد تدوم طيلة العمر! فضلاً عن حالة الوجه حين تكون ملتهبة حمراء ومزعجة.
ولا يوجد امرأة سلمت من أن تعاني من هذه الحبوب وتمر بهذه المرحلة، سواء أكانت مراهقة أم ناضجة. وكلما عالجت الحبوب مبكراً تجنبت آثارها السيئة على نحو أفضل.
وهانحن نقترب من العيد وتعاني كثيرات من آثار تغيير النظام الغذائي والإقبال على الحلويات والأكل الدسم مما يزيد من احتمال ظهور الحبوب. ولمعالجة هذه الحالة قبل حلول العيد، حيث تكثر الزيارات والسهرات؛ تحدثنا في موقع "أنا زهرة" مع الطبيبة منار العزيزي، الأخصائية الجلدية من مستشفى أوباجي بمدينة الرياض.
وتوضح العزيزي أنه هناك عدة أسباب لظهور حب الشباب مثل خلل في إفرازات الغدد الدهني، اختلال الهرمونات، الحالة النفسية والتوتر، طبيعة الغذاء، تناول بعض الأدوية. فهذه العوامل قد تؤدي الى ازدياد غير طبيعي في الإفرازات الدهنية ،وإذا ترافق ذلك بانسداد في المسامات الجلدية، سيؤدي الى انحباس هذه الإفرازات في الأجربة الشعرية داخل المسامات الجلدية أو ظهور الندبات والبقع.
توضح الدكتورة منار العزيزي لقراء موقع "انا زهرة" أنَ حب الشباب أنواع يجب التعرف عليها وكيفية علاجها :
1- حب الشباب البثوري: يبدأ بالظهور على شكل بثور بيضاء أو سوداء مع خشونة في سطح الجلد وتوسع خفيف في المسامات الجلدية، هذه البثور تبدو على شل أكياس صفراء ممتلئة وقاسية ذات مسام واسعة أو مسام مغلقة. والعلاج يتضمن استعمال بعض مخففات ومقشرات الجلد الدوائية، كما يقوم الطبيب بإزالة بعض هذه البثور باستعمال بعض الأدوات الخاصة.
2- حب الشباب الكيسي: في هذا النوع من حب الشباب تلتهب البثور فور تشكلها وينتج عند ذلك ظهور أكياس حمراء وحبوب كبيرة ممتلئة بالصديد أو الجراثيم. يعالج حب الشباب الكيسي عادة بالمجففات ومضادات الالتهابات مع المضادات الحيوية .
3- حب الشباب الكيسي الهرموني: تغلب هذه الحالة في النساء، وتبدأ عند البلوغ بظهور اضرابات طمثية كعدم انتظام الدورة الشهرية، ويظهر حب الشباب الكيسي على الوجه وقد يصيب الصدر والظهر أيضا.
طريقة العلاج: يجب معالجة كافة العوامل التي تسبب هذه الحالة فتعالج الاضطرابات الهرمونية، وتستعمل الأدوية اللازمة لتخفيف الالتهابات وتفتيح المسامات المسدودة وإزالة البثور بأنواعها وتنظيم الوظائف الجلدية.
4- حب الشباب الناتج عن استعمال مستحضرات التجميل:
البشرة الزيتية (ذات المفرزات الدهنية الزائدة) والبشرة العادية (ذات المسامات المتوسطة) معرضتان للإصابة بهذا النوع من حب الشباب، خاصة إذا استعملت المرطبات أو المكياجات التي تؤدي الى انسداد المسامات الجلدية واحتباس المواد الدهنية داخل الجلد، فتظهر البثور وبعض الأكياس الملتهبة وتزداد المسامات توسعاً ويخشن الجلد، وتظهر البقع، وتحدث الندبات، يتم العلاج كما في السابق وتنصح المريضة يتجنب المكياجات والمطريات المسببة ، ويتجنب المكياج وخاصة الزيتي منها وعليها اتباع نظام وقائي صارم.
تقدم الدكتورة منار العزيزي بعض الحقائق والنصائح الهامة التي يجب معرفتها واتباعها عندما تعاني المريضة من حب الشباب :
1- تنظيف الوجه بمنظف مناسب لنوع البشرة مرتين يوميا على الأقل.
2- استعملي الماء البارد عند غسل الوجه.
3- تجنبي عصر الحبوب أو تقشيرها أو حكها.
4- تجنبي تناول المنبهات كالقهوة و الشاي.
5- تجنب استعمال المستحضرات التجميلية الزيتية التي قد تؤدي الى انسداد المسامات الجلدية.
6- اتباع نظام الوقاية لمنع حب الشباب من العودة بعد العلاج للمحافظة على مسامات الجلد ووظائفها لإن حب الشباب قابل للعودة إذا أهمل الجلد بعد انتهاء العلاج.
7- تقشير البشرة كل 3 أشهر مرة على الأقل.
8- اتباع نظام غذائي قليل الدسم والدهون وتجنب الأكل السريع والأطعمة المقلية والشوكلاتة.
9- تنظيف البشرة لدى مختص كل 10 أيام مرة. من البرونزية المصدر انا زهرة للمراة العربية
A boil, or skin abscess, is a collection of pus that forms in the skin.
Antibiotics alone can be inadequate in treating abscesses.
The primary treatments for boils include hot packs and draining ("lancing") the abscess but only when it is soft and ready to drain.
If you have a fever or long-term illness, such as cancer or diabetes, or are taking medications that suppress the immune system, you should contact your health care professional if you develop a boil (abscess).
There are a number of methods that can be used to reduce the likelihood of developing some forms of boils, but boils are not completely preventable.
There are some measures that you can take to prevent boils from forming although boils are not completely preventable. Good hygiene and the regular use of antibacterial soaps can help to prevent bacteria from building up on the skin. This can reduce the chance for the hair follicles to become infected and prevent the formation of boils. In some situations, your health care professional may recommend special cleansers such as pHisoderm to even further reduce the bacteria on the skin. When the hair follicles on the back of the arms or around the thighs are continually inflamed, regular use of an abrasive brush (loofah brush) in the shower can be used to help break up oil plugs and buildup around hair follicles.
Pilonidal cysts can be prevented by avoiding continuous direct pressure or irritation of the buttock area when a local hair follicle becomes inflamed. At that point, regular soap and hot water cleaning and drying can be helpful.
For acne and hidradenitis suppurativa (see above), topical or oral antibiotics may be required on a long-term basis to prevent recurrent abscess formation. As mentioned above, surgical resection of sweat glands in the involved skin may be necessary. Other medications, such as isotretinoin (Accutane), can be used for cystic acne and have been helpful in some patients with hidradenitis suppurativa. Recurrences are common in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa.
Finally, surgery may occasionally be needed, especially for pilonidal cysts that recur but also for hidradenitis suppurativa. For pilonidal cysts, surgically removing the outer shell of the cyst is important to clear the boil. The procedure is typically performed in the operating room. For hidradenitis suppurativa, extensive involvement can require surgical repair by a plastic surgeon.
The majority of boils in healthy people resolve on their own with home care (described above). The prognosis is also excellent for boils that are treated in the health care setting by opening or lancing. Antibiotics may or may not be required after a boil has been lanced by a health care professional. Complications of a boil are rare and are more likely to occur in people with suppressed immune systems. Complications include a worsening or spreading to adjacent areas of skin or soft tissue and very rarely, spread of the infection through the bloodstream to sites elsewhere in the body. Recurrence of the infection is another possible complication, which is more likely in certain types of boils. Recurrence is most common in hidradenitis suppurativa and may also occur in situations in which the cause of the boil or abscess is persistent, such as the clogging of oil ducts seen in cystic acne.
While boils typically resolve on their own and therefore have an excellent prognosis, there are special cases in which medical care should be sought when boils develop. Rarely, boils may spread or persist, leading to more widespread infections.
Any boil or abscess in a patient with diabetes or a patient with an underlying illness that can be associated with a weakened immune system (such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.) should be evaluated by a health care professional. Additionally, many medicines, especially prednisone, that suppress the immune system (the natural infection-fighting system of the body) can complicate what would be an otherwise simple boil. Those who are taking such medications should consult their health care professional if they develop boils. (If you are not sure about your medications' effects on the immune system, your pharmacist may be able to explain to you which medicines to be concerned about.)
Any boil that is associated with a fever should receive medical attention. Increasing reddening of the nearby skin and/or formation of red streaks on the skin, the failure of a boil to "form a head," and the development of multiple boils are other symptoms that warrant a visit to a health care professional.
A "pilonidal cyst," a boil that occurs between the buttocks, is a special case. These almost always require medical treatment, including drainage and packing (putting gauze in the opened abscess to assure it continues to drain). Finally, any painful boil that is not rapidly improving should be seen by a health care professional.
Home treatment is an option for most simple boils. Ideally, treatment should begin as soon as a boil is noticed since early treatment may prevent later complications.
The primary home remedy for most boils is heat application, usually with hot soaks or hot packs. Heat application increases the circulation to the area and allows the body to better fight off the infection by bringing antibodies and white blood cells to the site of infection.
As long as the boil is small and firm, opening the area and draining the boil is not helpful, even if the area is painful. However, once the boil becomes soft or "forms a head" (that is, a small pustule or area of pus is noted in the boil), it can be ready to drain. Once drained, pain relief can be dramatic. Most small boils, such as those that form around hairs, drain on their own with hot soaks. On occasion, and especially with larger boils, medical treatment is required. In this situation, the boil will need to be drained or "lanced" by a health care professional. Frequently, these larger boils contain several pockets of pus that must be opened and drained.
Antibiotics are often used to eliminate any accompanying bacterial infection, especially if there is an infection of the surrounding skin. However, antibiotics are not needed in every situation. In fact, antibiotics have difficulty penetrating the outer wall of an abscess well and often will not cure an abscess without additional surgical drainage.
The diagnosis of a boil can be made by observation of the typical signs and symptoms. Blood tests or specialized laboratory tests are not required to make the diagnosis of a boil. If the infection within a boil has spread to deeper tissues or is extensive, cultures of the pus may be taken from the wound area to identify the precise type of bacteria responsible for the infection. This can guide the choice of antibiotics for treatment.
Anyone can develop a boil. However, people with certain illnesses or who take certain medications that impair the body's immune system (the natural defense system against foreign materials or microbes) are more likely to develop boils. Among the illnesses that can be associated with impaired immune systems are diabetes and kidney failure. Diseases in which there is inadequate antibody production (such as hypogammaglobulinemia), that are associated with deficiencies in the normal immune system can increase the tendency to develop boils.
Many medications can suppress the normal immune system and increase the risk of developing boils. These medications include cortisone medications (prednisone [Deltasone, Liquid Pred] and prednisolone [Pediapred Oral Liquid, Medrol]) and medications used for cancer chemotherapy.
There are many causes of boils. Some boils can be caused by an ingrown hair. Others can form as the result of a splinter or other foreign material that has become lodged in the skin. Others boils, such as those of acne, are caused by plugged sweat glands that become infected.
The skin is an essential part of our immune defense against materials and microbes that are foreign to our body. Any break in the skin, such as a cut or scrape, can develop into an abscess should it become infected with bacteria.
A boil is a localized infection in the skin that begins as a reddened, tender area. Over time, the area becomes firm, hard, and more tender. Eventually, the center of the boil softens and becomes filled with infection-fighting white blood cells from the bloodstream to eradicate the infection. This collection of white blood cells, bacteria, and proteins is known as pus. Finally, the pus "forms a head," which can be surgically opened or spontaneously drain out through the surface of the skin. Pus enclosed within tissue is referred to as an abscess. A boil is also referred to as a skin abscess.
There are several different types of boils:
Furuncle or carbuncle: This is an abscess in the skin usually caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. A furuncle can have one or more openings onto the skin and may be associated with a fever or chills. The term furuncle is used to refer to a typical boil that occurs within a hair follicle. The term carbuncle is typically used to represent a larger abscess that involves a group of hair follicles and involves a larger area than a furuncle. A carbuncle can form a hardened lump that can be felt in the skin. The condition of having chronic, recurring boils is referred to as furunculosis or carbunculosis.
Picture of a carbuncle
Cystic acne: This is a type of abscess that is formed when oil ducts become clogged and infected. Cystic acne affects deeper skin tissue than the more superficial inflammation from common acne. Cystic acne is most common on the face and typically occurs in the teenage years.
Hidradenitis suppurativa: This is a condition in which there are multiple abscesses that form under the armpits and often in the groin area. These areas are a result of local inflammation of the sweat glands. This form of skin infection is difficult to treat with antibiotics alone and typically requires a surgical procedure to remove the involved sweat glands in order to stop the skin inflammation.
Pilonidal cyst: This is a unique kind of abscess that occurs in the crease of the buttocks. Pilonidal cysts often begin as tiny areas of infection in the base of the area of skin from which hair grows (the hair follicle). With irritation from direct pressure, over time the inflamed area enlarges to become a firm, painful, and tender nodule that makes it difficult to sit without discomfort. These frequently form after long trips that involve prolonged sitting.
Treating acne requires patience and perseverance. Any of the treatments listed above may take two or three months to start working (even isotretinoin). Unless there are side effects such as dryness or allergy, it is important to give each regimen or drug enough time to work before giving up on it and moving on to other methods. Using modern methods, doctors can help clear up the skin of just about everyone.
Just hang in there. And don't pick. Please.
Kurokawa, Ichiro, et al. "New Developments in Our Understanding of Acne Pathogenesis and Treatment." Experimental Dermatology 18 (2009): 821-832.
If you haven't been able to control your acne adequately, you may want to consult a primary-care physician or dermatologist. The goal of treatment should be the prevention of scarring (not a flawless complexion) so that after the condition spontaneously resolves there is no lasting sign of the affliction. Here are some of the options available:
Topical (externally applied) antibiotics and antibacterials: These include erythromycin (E-Mycin, Eryc, Ery-Tab, PCE, Pediazole, Ilosone), clindamycin (BenzaClin, Duac), sulfacetamide (Klaron), and azelaic acid (Azelex or Finacea).
Retinoids: Retin-A (tretinoin) has been around for years, and preparations have become milder and gentler while still maintaining its effectiveness. Newer retinoids include adapalene (Differin) and tazarotene (Tazorac). These medications are especially helpful for unclogging pores. Side effects may include irritation and a mild increase in sensitivity to the sun. With proper sun protection, however, they can be used even during sunny periods. In December 2008, the U.S. FDA approved the combination medication known as Epiduo gel, which contains the retinoid adapalene along with the antibacterial cleanser benzoyl peroxide. This once-daily prescription treatment was approved for use in patients 12 years of age and older.
Oral antibiotics: Doctors may start treatment with tetracycline (Sumycin) or one of the related "cyclines," such as doxycycline (Vibramycin, Oracea, Adoxa, Atridox and others) and minocycline (Dynacin, Minocin). Other oral antibiotics that are useful for treating acne are cefadroxil (Duricef), amoxicillin (Amoxil, DisperMox, Trimox), and the sulfa drugs.
Problems with these drugs can include allergic reactions (especially sulfa), gastrointestinal upset, and increased sun sensitivity. Doxycycline, in particular, is generally safe but can sometime cause esophagitis (irritation of the esophagus, producing discomfort when swallowing) and an increased tendency to sunburn.
Despite many people's concerns about using oral antibiotics for several months or longer, such use does not "weaken the immune system" and make them more susceptible to infections or unable to use other antibiotics when necessary.
Recently published reports that long-term antibiotic use may increase the risk of breast cancer will require further study, but at present they are not substantiated. In general, doctors prescribe oral antibiotic therapy for acne only when necessary and for as short a time as possible.
Oral contraceptives: Oral contraceptives, which are low in estrogen to promote safety, have little effect on acne one way or the other. Some contraceptive pills have been to shown to have modest effectiveness in treating acne. Those FDA approved for treating acne are Estrostep, Ortho Tri-Cyclen, and Yaz. Most dermatologists work together with primary physicians or gynecologists when recommending these medications.
Spironolactone (Aldactone): This drug blocks androgen (hormone) receptors. It can cause breast tenderness, menstrual irregularities, and increased potassium levels in the bloodstream. It can help some women with resistant acne, however, and is generally well-tolerated in the young women who need it.
Cortisone injections: To make large pimples and cysts flatten out fast, doctors inject them with a form of cortisone.
Isotretinoin: (Accutane was the original brand name; there are now several generic versions in common use, including Sotret, Claravis, and Amnesteem.) Isotretinoin is an excellent treatment for severe, resistant acne and has been used on millions of patients since it was introduced in Europe in 1971 and in the U.S. in 1982. It should be used for people with severe acne, chiefly of the cystic variety, which has been unresponsive to conventional therapies like those listed above. The drug has many potential serious side effects and requires a number of unique controls before it is prescribed. This means that isotretinoin is not a good choice for people whose acne is not that bad but who are frustrated and want "something that will knock acne out once and for all."
Used properly, isotretinoin is safe and produces few side effects beyond dry lips and occasional muscle aches. This drug is prescribed for five to six months. Fasting blood tests are monitored monthly to check liver function and the level of triglycerides, substances related to cholesterol, which often rise a bit during treatment, but rarely to the point where treatment has to be modified or stopped.
Even though isotretinoin does not remain in the body after therapy is stopped, improvement is often long-lasting. It is safe to take two or three courses of the drug if unresponsive acne makes a comeback. It is, however, best to wait at least several months and to try other methods before using isotretinoin again.
Isotretinoin has a high risk of inducing birth defects if taken by pregnant women. Women of childbearing age who take isotretinoin need two negative pregnancy tests (blood or urine) before starting the drug, monthly tests while they take it, and another after they are done. Those who are sexually active must use two forms of contraception, one of which is usually the oral contraceptive pill. Isotretinoin leaves the body completely when treatment is done; women must be sure to avoid pregnancy for one month after therapy is stopped. There is, however, no risk to childbearing after that time.
Other concerns include inflammatory bowel disease and the risk of depression and suicide in patients taking isotretinoin. Government oversight has resulted in a highly publicized and very burdensome national registration system for those taking the drug. This has reinforced concerns in many patients and their families have that isotretinoin is dangerous. In fact, large-scale studies so far have shown no convincing evidence of increased risk for those taking isotretinoin compared with the general population. It is important for those taking this drug to report changes in mood or bowel habits (or any other symptoms) to their doctors. Even patients who are being treated for depression are not barred from taking isotretinoin, whose striking success often improves the mood and outlook of patients with severe disease.
Laser treatments: Recent years have brought reports of success in treating acne using lasers and similar devices, alone or in conjunction with photosensitizing dyes. It appears that these treatments are safe and can be effective, but it is not clear that their success is lasting. At this point, laser treatment of acne is best thought of as an adjunct to conventional therapy, rather than as a substitute.
Chemical peels: Whether the superficial peels (like glycolic acid) performed by aestheticians or deeper ones performed in the doctor's office, chemical peels are of modest, supportive benefit only, and in general, they do not substitute for regular therapy.
Treatment of acne scars: For those patients whose acne has gone away but left them with permanent scarring, several options are available. These include surgical procedures to elevate deep, depressed acne scars and laser resurfacing to smooth out shallow acne scars. Newer forms of laser resurfacing ("fractional resurfacing") are less invasive and heal faster than older methods, although results are less complete and they may need to be repeated three or more times. These treatments can help, but they are never completely successful at eliminating acne scars.
Cosmetics: Don't be afraid to hide blemishes with flesh-tinted coverups or even foundation, as long at it is water-based (which makes it noncomedogenic). There are many quality products available.
Facials: While not absolutely essential, steaming and "deep-cleaning" pores is useful, both alone and in addition to medical treatment, especially for people with "whiteheads" or "blackheads." Having these pores unclogged by a professional also reduces the temptation to do it yourself.
Pore strips: Pharmacies now carry, under a variety of brand names, strips which you put on your nose, forehead, chin, etc., to "pull out" oil from your pores. These are, in effect, a do-it-yourself facial. They are inexpensive, safe, and work reasonably well if used properly.
Toothpaste? One popular home remedy is to put toothpaste on zits. There is no medical basis for this. Ditto for vinegar.
Think back to the three basic causes of acne and you can understand why the focus of both home treatment and prescription therapy is to (1) unclog pores, (2) kill bacteria, and (3) minimize oil. But first a word about...
Lifestyle: Moderation and regularity are good things, but not everyone can sleep eight hours, eat three good meals, and drink eight glasses of water a day. You can, however, still control your acne even if your routine is frantic and unpredictable. Probably the most useful lifestyle changes you can make are to never to pick or squeeze pimples. Playing with or popping pimples, no matter how careful and clean you are, nearly always makes bumps stay redder and bumpier longer. People often refer to redness as "scarring," but fortunately it usually isn't in the permanent sense. It's just a mark that takes months to fade if left entirely alone.
Open the pores
Cleansing and skin care: Despite what you read in popular style and fashion magazines, there is no magic product or regimen that is right for every person and situation.
Mild cleansers: Washing once or twice a day with a mild cleansing bar or liquid (for example, Dove, Neutrogena, Basis, Purpose, and Cetaphil are all inexpensive and popular) will keep the skin clean and minimize sensitivity and irritation.
Exfoliating cleansers and masques: A variety of mild scrubs, exfoliants, and masks can be used. These products contain either fine granules or salicylic acid in a concentration that makes it a very mild peeling agent. These products remove the outer layer of the skin and thus open pores. Products containing glycolic or alpha hydroxy acids are also gentle skin exfoliants.
Retinol: Not to be confused with the prescription medication Retin-A, this derivative of vitamin A can help promote skin peeling.
Kill the bacteria
Antibacterial cleansers: The most popular ingredient in over-the-counter antibacterial cleansers is benzoyl peroxide.
Topical (external) applications: These products come in the form of gels, creams, and lotions, which are applied to the affected area. The active ingredients that kill surface bacteria include benzoyl peroxide, sulfur, and resorcinol. Some brands promoted on the Internet and cable TV (such as ProActiv) are much more costly than identical products you can buy in the drugstore.
Benzoyl peroxide causes red and scaly skin irritation in a small number of people, which goes away as soon as you stop using the product. Keep in mind that benzoyl peroxide is a bleach, so do not let products containing benzoyl peroxide leave unsightly blotching on colored clothes, shirts, towels, and carpets.
Reduce the oil
You cannot stop your oil glands from producing oil (unless you mess with your hormones or metabolism in ways you shouldn't). Even isotretinoin (Accutane, see below) only slows down oil glands for a while; they come back to life later. What you can do is to get rid of oil on the surface of the skin and reduce the embarrassing shine.
Use a gentle astringent/toner to wipe away oil. (There are many brands available in pharmacies, as well as from manufacturers of cosmetic lines.)
Products containing glycolic acid or one of the other alpha hydroxy acids are also mildly helpful in clearing the skin by causing the superficial layer of the skin to peel (exfoliate).
Masks containing sulfur and other ingredients draw out facial oil.
Antibacterial pads containing benzoyl peroxide have the additional benefit of helping you wipe away oil.
Since everyone gets acne at some time, the right time to treat it is when it bothers you or when the potential for scarring develops. This can be when severe acne flares suddenly, for mild acne that just won't go away, or even when a single pimple decides to show up the week before your prom or wedding. The decision is yours.
Rosacea: This condition is characterized by pimples but not comedones and occurs in the middle third of the face, along with redness, flushing, and superficial blood vessels. It generally affects people in their 30s and 40s and older.
Pseudofolliculitis: This is sometimes called "razor bumps" or "razor rash." When cut close to the skin, curly neck hairs bend under the skin and produce pimples. This is a mechanical problem, and treatment involves shaving less (growing a beard, laser hair removal). Pseudofolliculitis can, of course, occur in patients who have acne, too.
Folliculitis: Pimples can occur on other parts of the body, such as the abdomen, buttocks, or legs. These represent not acne but inflamed follicles. If these don't go away on their own, doctors can prescribe oral or external antibiotics, generally not the same ones used for acne.
Gram-negative folliculitis: Some patients who have been treated with oral antibiotics for long periods develop pustules filled with bacteria resistant to the antibiotics which have previously been used. Bacterial culture tests can identify these germs, leading the doctor to prescribe different antibiotics or other forms of treatment.
No one factor causes acne. Acne happens when sebaceous (oil) glands attached to the hair follicles are stimulated at the time of puberty by elevated levels of male hormones. Sebum (oil) is a natural substance which lubricates and protects the skin. Associated with increased oil production is a change in the manner in which the skin cells mature so that they are predisposed to clog the follicular openings or pores. The clogged hair follicle gradually enlarges, producing a bump. As the follicle enlarges, the wall may rupture, allowing irritating substances and normal skin bacteria access into the deeper layers of the skin, ultimately producing inflammation.
Inflammation near the skin's surface produces a pustule; deeper inflammation results in a papule (pimple); deeper still and it's a cyst. If the oil breaks though to the surface, the result is a "whitehead." If the oil accumulates melanin pigment or becomes oxidized, the oil changes from white to black, and the result is a "blackhead." Blackheads are therefore not dirt and do not reflect poor hygiene.
Here are some factors that don't usually play a role in acne:
Heredity: With the exception of very severe acne, most people do not have the problem exactly as their parents did. Almost everyone has some acne at some point in their life.
Food: Parents often tell teens to avoid pizza, chocolate, greasy and fried foods, and junk food. While these foods may not be good for overall health, they don't cause acne or make it worse. Although some recent studies have implicated milk and pure chocolate in aggravating acne, these findings are very far from established.
Dirt: As mentioned above, "blackheads" are oxidized oil, not dirt. Sweat does not cause acne, therefore, it is not necessary to shower instantly after exercise for fear that sweat will clog pores. On the other hand, excessive washing can dry and irritate the skin.
Stress: Some people get so upset by their pimples that they pick at them and make them last longer. Stress, however, does not play much of a direct role in causing acne.
In occasional patients, the following may be contributing factors:
Pressure: In some patients, pressure from helmets, chin straps, collars, suspenders, and the like can aggravate acne.
Drugs: Some medications may cause or worsen acne, such as those containing iodides, bromides, or oral or injected steroids (either the medically prescribed prednisone [Deltasone, Orasone, Prednicen-M, Liquid Pred] or the steroids that bodybuilders or athletes take). Other drugs that can cause or aggravate acne are anticonvulsant medications and lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid), which is used to treat bipolar disorder. Most cases of acne, however, are not drug related.
Occupations: In some jobs, exposure to industrial products like cutting oils may produce acne.
Cosmetics: Some cosmetics and skin-care products are pore clogging ("comedogenic"). Of the many available brands of skin-care products, it is important to read the list of ingredients and choose those which have water listed first or second if you are concerned about acne. These "water-based" products are usually safe.
Acne (acne vulgaris, common acne) is a disease of the hair follicles of the face, chest, and back that affects almost all males and females during puberty; the only exception being teenage members of a few primitive isolated tribes living in Neolithic societies. It is not caused by bacteria, although bacteria play a role in its development. It is not unusual for some women to develop acne in their mid- to late-20s.
Acne appears on the skin as...
congested pores ("comedones"), also known as blackheads or whiteheads,
tender red bumps also known as pimples or zits,
pustules, and occasionally as
cysts (deep pimples, boils).
You can do a lot to treat your acne using products available at a drugstore or cosmetic counter that do not require a prescription. However, for tougher cases of acne, you should consult a physician for treatment options.